Three years ago I reported that the J. Paul Getty Museum would be returning a terracotta head of Hades to Italy. It appears to be derived from a sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone ("the decision to transfer this head is based on the discovery of four terracotta fragments found near Morgantina in Sicily, similar in style and medium to the Getty head").
The head will be handed over to the Italian authoroties in Los Angeles tomorrow (Friday, January 29, 2016) [press release]. It will then be displayed in the museum at Aidone next to the 'Aphrodite' from Morgantina (announced in 2007; returned in 2011).
Peppard talks about the looting of sites in Syria to raise funds for IS.
“Anything that is portable, that has been discovered, for example, through a systematized looting operation, is being monetized and used as a currency and sold abroad.”
The report then continues with the astonishing:
There could be one tiny shred of good news here. If ISIS continues to facilitate the excavation and sale of artifacts, that means some antiquities could potentially make their way into the hands of experts who could learn from them and preserve them for future generations.
Is the report suggesting that "experts", by which I would understand museum curators and othe…
Christos Tsirogiannis and I have reviewed the way that objects surfacing on the antiquities market can be identified through the Medici Dossier. It notes that some of the databases have been using information from the dossier, and that information has in some cases been passed to auction houses. This suggests that there needs to be an improved due diligence process for those involved with the market.
Gill, D. W. J., and C. Tsirogiannis. 2016. "Polaroids from the Medici dossier: continued sightings on the market." In Art crime: terrorists, tomb raiders, forgers and thieves, edited by N. Charney: 229-39. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
The paper is a revision of:
Gill, D. W. J., and C. Tsirogiannis. 2011. "Polaroids from the Medici Dossier: continued sightings on the market." Journal of Art Crime 5: 27-33.
The report is full of praise for the Portable Antiquities Scheme:
In the 1980s, archaeologists and metal detectorists were at war over the nation's subterranean heritage.
But in the 20 years since the PAS set out clear guidance for the reporting of finds by the public, the relationship between responsible detectorists and archaeologists has thawed.
It so happens that Norfolk features in the Nighthawking Survey (2009) and in my discussion of PAS ("The Portable Antiquities Scheme and the Treasure Act: Protecting the Archaeology of England and Wales?", 2010). I also gave Norfolk as an example in my 2009 response to the Survey.
The BBC report also gives a little more detail of the "hundreds of holes"…
Sue McGovern has been contributing to the debate over the appearance (or not) of archaeological material from Syria and Iraq on the western markets. She makes the claim:
In the past, the trade has not always had a good record in dealing with illicit material but over the past 15 years this has changed dramatically and continues to do so: Auction houses implement the highest standards of due diligence.
McGovern may be unaware of the regular need for one major NYC auction house to withdraw lots because of their associations with Italy. This suggests that the due diligence process for that organisation is not yet at a point that is sufficiently robust.
The topic has been addressed on a regular basis by Glasgow University researcher Dr Christos Tsirogiannis, most recently in the latest number of the Journal of Art Crime (see here). For a recent example in New York see here.
The media in Switzerland are reporting that material stored by London-based antiquities dealer Robin Symes have been returned to Italy ("Trésors d'un célèbre trafiquant cachés à Genève", Le Temps [Geneva] 15 January 2016). The items were seized in the freeport in 2001. The size of the haul is reflected in the statement that there were 45 containers.
The source is stated:
Comment ce trésor est-il arrivé à Genève? Interrogé, le parquet genevois ne fait aucun commentaire, se bornant à préciser que les pièces avaient été apportées du Royaume-Uni par un marchand d'art anglais très en vue à une certaine époque et ayant plusieurs fois défrayé la chronique. Son nom, qui nous a été confirmé par des professionnels du milieu: Robin Symes.
This does not appear to have been confirmed by the Italian authorities.
If this is confirmed as ex-Symes stock then it will place additional pressure on the British authorities to return material seized in warehouses in London.
I have read Judith H. Dobrzynski's article "Antiquities and ISIS: Something Doesn’t Add Up" in the Artsjournal blog for January 15, 2016 with interest. She notes:
What I discovered, for one thing, is that actual examples of ISIS-looted antiquities on the market are slim to none. True, it may be that objects looted now are being kept in warehouses, for later sale–but that doesn’t finance ISIS now. Also true. the goods may not be coming into the U.S. market. The antiquities dealers I spoke with said they had not seen anything on these shores from looted areas since ISIS began its jihad.
One of the things that I think is exercising many of us is the indication "ISIS-looted". Unless an object is photographed during the looting process it is unlikely that we can be 100 per cent certain about who has looted it. (But remember the fall-out from the Medici, Becchina, and Schinousa photographic archives.)
Commentators seem to be overlooking London. Last February I can r…
A Bronze Age 'petrosphere' has been stolen from the Dunblane Museum in Scotland.
Police in Dunblane said they were investigating the theft and appealed for information.
A spokesman said: "If you have any knowledge of who may be responsible or know the whereabouts of the stone ball, please contact Dunblane officers on 101 or via Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111."
"'Priceless' ball stolen from Dunblane Museum", BBC News January 14, 2016"Bronze age stone ball stolen from museum", Heritage Journal January 14, 2016
The Fall 2015 number of the Journal of Art Crime vol. 14 has been published.
Readers of LM will be particularly interested in the following essays:
Christos Tsirogiannis, 'Due diligence? Christie's Antiquities Auction, London, October 2015', pp. 27-38Francesco Rutelli, 'The return of iconoclasm: barbarian ideology and destruction by ISIS as a challenge for modern culture, not only for Islam', pp. 55-60David W. J. Gill, 'Context Matters. Malibu Memoirs: Marion True breaks silence', pp. 65-72Laurie Rush, 'The Carabinieri, peacekeeping and foreign relations: the Carabinieri mission to Iraq', pp. 73-80'Stefano Alessandrini, Looting and passion of Greek vases from Etruria and Magna Graecia: the birth of the great collections', pp. 81-86
A series of essays on objects from the Shefton Collection now in the Great North Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne, has appeared. This provides information on how Brian Shefton developed 'the Greek Museum' during his time as a member of staff at Newcastle University.
My own contribution to the volume included a discussion of an Attic black-glossed bolsal that had once formed part of the Nostell Priory collection in Yorkshire.
My memoir on Shefton was published in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography this week.
‘The Nostell Priory bolsal’, in J. Boardman, A. Parkin, and S. Waite (eds.), On the Fascination of Objects: Greek and Etruscan Art in the Shefton Collection (Oxford: Oxbow, 2016), 95-106. [Casemate]‘Shefton, Brian Benjamin (1919–2012)’, in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).
I have been working on the impact of the returns to Italy from North American public and private collections as well as auction houses and galleries. The count now exceeds 350 items, and is valued in (at a conservative estimate) the tens of millions of dollars.
How did museum curators and directors support these acquisitions? Were private collectors unaware of the issues? And what did those involved in the market know about sources and collecting histories?
How far have due diligence processes been strengthened and tightened?
Collecting histories lie at the heart of research behind objects that surface on the market. Can the 'history' be traced back to a point before the 1970 UNESCO Convention (or the relevant law relating to cultural property from a particular country)?
We should not mistake oral accounts for history. Phrases such as "said to be from an old collection" or "thought to have been in a specific collection" need to be checked out by those selling objects at auction or in a gallery, and certainly by those acquiring the items. What is the authenticated documentation? (Note, not just the documentation.)
The Ka-Nefer-Nefer mummy mask excavated at Saqqara and now in the St Louis Art Museum has a reported collecting history that does not sit comfortably with other verifiable evidence.
In 2016 the issue of the due diligence process needs to be brought higher up the agenda so that buyers need not be concerned that they are acquiring objects that could be contested in the co…
The continuing looting and destruction of archaeological sites in Syria and Iraq is likely to dominate the news. The academic discussion will focus on how material is moving from the Middle East to the markets in Europe and North America. We are likely to see confirmed material from Syria surfacing on the London market. The bigger question is which groups benefit from the sales?
Dealers, galleries and auction houses have been keen to reassure the press that they would never handle recently surfaced material from Syria or Iraq. (Incidentally, I walked into one London gallery this summer and the object nearest to the attendant's desk had a label naming one of the best known handlers of recently surfaced antiquities.) The observation that one of the major international auction houses continues to offer Italian material identified from the Becchina and Medici archives suggests that the due diligence process needs to be improved.
I suspect that there will continue to be identifications…